Hardware Guides

Exponential Ryzen Voltage-Frequency Curve (Overclocking)

April 24, 2018 — by Patrick Lathan0


For our 2700/2700X review, we wanted to see how Ryzen 2’s volt-frequency performance compared to Ryzen 1. We took our Ryzen 7 2700X and an R7 1700 and clocked them both to 4GHz, and then found the lowest possible voltage that would allow them to survive stress tests in Blender and Prime95. Full results are included in that review, but the most important point was this: the 1700 needed at least 1.425v to maintain stability, while the 2700X required only 1.162v (value reported by HWiNFO, not what was set in BIOS).

This drew our attention, because we already knew that our 2700X could barely manage 4.2GHz at >1.425v. In other words, a 5% increase in frequency from 4 to 4.2GHz required a 22.6% increase in reported voltage.

Frequency in Ryzen 2 has started to behave like GPU Boost 3.0, where temperature, power consumption, and voltage heavily impact boosting behavior when left unmanaged. Our initial experience with Ryzen 2 led us to believe that a volt-frequency curve would look almost exponential, like the one on the screen now. That was our hypothesis. To be clear, we can push frequency higher with reference clock increases to 102 or 103MHz and can then sustain 4.2GHz at lower voltages, or even 4.25GHz and up, but that’s not our goal. Our goal is to plot a volt-frequency curve with just multiplier and voltage modifications. We typically run out of thermal headroom before we run out of safe voltage headroom, but if voltage increases exponentially, that will quickly become a problem.

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AMD Ryzen 2 Voltage Curve Theory

That kind of change suggests an exponential increase, and we wanted to know more. We decided to measure and plot the volt-frequency curves of both chips with frequency on the X axis and minimum stable voltage on the Y axis. At increasing frequencies, the required voltage for both chips rapidly increases out of a safe range, and the vertical difference between the lines on our theoretical graph at a given frequency becomes huge (1.425v versus 1.162v at 4GHz). However, at a given voltage the horizontal difference remains tiny (4GHz vs 4.2GHz at 1.43-ish volts). Based on this knowledge, this was what we expected to see:

This is just an example, graph does not represent any data


Our previous test used both Prime and Blender, but in the interest of efficiency in these tests we tested stability by running our most stressful Blender benchmark for about ten minutes. That’s not enough time to guarantee stability for a daily-use OC, but it’s generally enough time to ensure that a CPU will pass our usual battery of synthetic tests, which is good enough to plot a curve. Not every CPU is the same, and our exact numbers don’t apply to every 1700 and 2700X.

Test Platform (Sponsored by Corsair)

Component Part Courtesy of


Gigabyte X470 Gaming 7
(See list below for details)

GN’s side channels
Also, ASUS for C6H


This is what we’re testing


Corsair Vengeance LPX 3200 16-18-18-36
GSkill Trident Z 3600



NZXT Kraken X62


Power Supply

Corsair AX1600i
EVGA G2L 750


Video Card



BIOS settings and hardware were kept the same other than CPU, vcore, and all-core multiplier, which were the variables being tested. The >4.1GHz tests on the 2700X were done using a Thermaltake 360mm CLC rather than the usual 280mm Kraken X62. These are marked with an asterisk in the charts and with a dotted line on the graph, and aren’t closely comparable to the other results.

This wasn’t a test of how high the 2700X can be overclocked. Ours can do 4.2GHz fairly easily by maxing LLC or adjusting BCLK, but that wasn’t the point here. All-core overclocking the 2700X (without LN2) is pretty pointless in terms of performance anyway–check our review for details.

AMD R7 1700 Overclocking Volt-Frequency Curve

We’ll begin with just a results table for the R7 1700. At the low-end, we were able to maintain a minimum stable voltage of 1.069V for 3.5GHz all-core, producing a Tdie of 49 degrees Celsius at 7A at the EPS12V rails, equating 86W of power draw. Increasing by 100MHz, to 3.6GHz, required an additional 0.0375V and increased temperature by a few degrees, with power draw increased by 7W. The next 100MHz jump required 0.044V, with another 100MHz on top of that, going to 3.8GHz now, requiring 0.062V. It’s becoming clear how this is a non-linear voltage requirement. 3.9GHz required an additional 0.075V on top of the 1.212V we had previously, putting us at 1.287V. We’re also now at 64.6 degrees Celsius and 144W of power consumption. Our final step to 4.0GHz required 0.119V on top of the previous jump, putting us at a total of 0.337V over our initial 3.5GHz requirement of 1.069V.

Frequency GHz



Motherboard VCore

Tdie @ 10 mins

Ambient @ 10 mins

Current Clamp Amperage

CPU Core Current SV12 TFN

















































We already knew our 1700 would do 4GHz at a bit over 1.4v, but below 4GHz it was surprisingly efficient. 3.9GHz is still a decent boost over stock for the 1700.

AMD R7 2700X Overclocking Volt-Frequency Curve

Frequency GHz



Motherboard VCore

Tdie @ 10 mins

Ambient @ 10 mins

Current Clamp Amperage

CPU Core Current SV12 TFN

















































































*Switched to a larger cooler to surpass 4.1GHz, results not directly comparable

At 3.5GHz (our arbitrarily-chosen baseline), the 2700X needed less than 1 volt to stay stable in Blender. At the high end, it needed much more, to the extent that at 4.1GHz the Tdie measurement was nearing 70C (and the room was getting very warm). Further increases in frequency/voltage raised Tdie past 80C and weren’t stable, probably due in part to the high temperature. We knew our 2700X was capable of more, so we pushed past 4.1GHz using a larger cooler and lower ambient temperatures. We included these numbers to show just how much cooling can affect the stability of short-term OC tests, but they shouldn’t be compared to the others.

At 3.5GHz, the 2700X needed just 0.9V to hold stable, a significant reduction even from the R7 1700. The 2700X required an increase in voltage to 0.956 to sustain 3.6GHz, or a jump up of 0.05V and so on, until we hit 4.0 GHz at 1.162V, which then required a jump of 0.08V to climb to 4.1GHz. We switched to a larger cooler at this point, as we were hitting 70 degrees and up on Tdie, which was causing instability and crashes in our Blender test. This means the data isn’t perfectly comparable, and so is represented by a dotted line. You can see that the curve gets incredibly steep at 4.2GHz, where we had to increase from 1.24 to 1.38V to hold stability with the larger cooler. Note that we could achieve this with lower voltage if tuning BCLK instead, but that’s one of our controls.

Ignoring the extra-well-cooled results for the 2700X, the plotted curves are almost what we predicted, albeit less dramatic within the limited bounds of our test. We can’t get into the territory of really vertical increases because we’re limited by temperature. Der8auer included a graph in his 6000MHz 2700X OC video of voltages and frequencies he achieved without LN2. Reformatted to match our graphs, his data looks like this:

His voltages are lower because, among other reasons, he was using a higher level of LLC, but the shape of the curve is close to our own, right down to the sharp increase in required voltage at the end: he went as high as 1.5v without surpassing 4.3GHz. He was testing in increments of .025v and .025GHz, so we can extrapolate a best-case scenario of achieving 4.325GHz at 1.525v.

AMD R7 2700X Volt-Frequency Curve Conclusion

This was an academic experiment. Again, we could push higher frequencies with lower voltages if we were to tune, say, the reference clock. The point is to control variables as much as possible, then just research V-F scaling between the R7 1700 and R7 2700X.

As stated in our review, the Ryzen 2 processors primarily shine in lower voltage requirements at a given frequency, which is doubly illustrated here, against the 1700. Both CPUs do have somewhat non-linear, pseudo-exponential curves as frequency increases. This also happens with Intel, mind you, but that’s well-documented. The Ryzen CPUs are still relatively new. Without BCLK and other tuning, we hit a wall at 4.2GHz and can’t push voltage high enough to stabilize >4.2GHz (multiplier only). We could with exotic cooling, probably, but temperature begins to dictate boosting functionality — just like modern GPUs.

The more interesting point is that our 2700X can hold its base frequency of 3.7GHz on all cores at 1.0v, while our 1700 needs at least 1.1625V for the same clock speed.

Editorial, Testing: Patrick Lathan
Host, Editorial: Steve Burke
Video: Andrew Coleman


MyEtherWallet Hacked Via BGP Hijacking

April 24, 2018 — by The Pcfiend0


MyEtherWallet Hacked Via BGP Hijacking

At midnight, users visiting found a warning for an unsigned SSL certificate. Those that chose to ignore the warning, got their wallets emptied. The Verge is reporting that hackers attacked the infrastructure of the internet, by hijacking a Border Gateway Protocol router in the vicinity of an internet exchange in Chicago, and directed traffic from MyEtherWallet to a server in Russia. So far at least $13,000 was stolen.

News Image

Based on what security researcher Kevin Beaumont has to say about the attack in the quote below, it is possible that more domains were affected during the attack. It is also worth noting that the attackers already had more than $17 million in Ethereum in it before the attack today.

The security vulnerabilities in BGP and DNS are well known, and have been attacked before. This is the largest scale attack I have seen which combines both, and it underscores the fragility of internet security.



Samsung Releases 970 PRO and EVO SSDs

April 24, 2018 — by The Pcfiend0


Samsung Releases 970 PRO and EVO SSDs

Samsung has announced today the 970 PRO and EVO solid state drives. The new M.2 drives are using the latest V-NAND technology and an all new Phoenix controller to give speeds of up to 3,500 MB/s read and 2,700 MB/s write, which is nearly 30% faster sequential writes than the 960 series, as well as boasting a 5 year or 1,200TBW warranty.

The 970 EVO will be available in 250GB, 500GB, 1TB, and 2TB capacities, and the 970 PRO in 512GB and 1TB starting May 7th. The release is a little confusing on price stating that the MSRP will be $329.99 and $119.99 USD, which we can only assume is the pricing for the 512GB PRO and the 250GB EVO.

News Image

Incredible performance, and the MSRP isn’t too bad at all. Surprising that they aren’t launching a 2.5″ version of the 970s and going strictly M.2 so far. You can check out the full press release here.

“Samsung has led the NVMe SSD industry since its inception, and the company continues to define the latest standards of consumer storage with unprecedented performance of the 970 PRO and EVO SSDs,” said Un-Soo Kim, senior vice president of Brand Product Marketing, Memory Business at Samsung Electronics. “The 970 series sets a new bar in all aspects for the NVMe SSD market with groundbreaking performance, superior reliability and best-in-class capacity.”



Dark Souls: Remastered First Gameplay Trailer; PC Requirements; and a Discount

April 24, 2018 — by The Pcfiend0


Dark Souls: Remastered First Gameplay Trailer; PC Requirements; and a Discount

Bandai Namco has released the first gameplay trailer for Dark Souls: Remastered today, and it looks like Dark Souls…. but remastered. However I can’t tell from the video of the controls on PC got remastered along with the graphics, but one can hope. The bigger news comes from DSOGaming, where they are reporting that according to the Japanese Dark Souls website, all PC owners of Dark Souls Prepare to Die Edition will receive a 50% discount on the remake, which is scheduled to release on May 25th.

[embedded content]

Minimum Requirements:

i5 2300 or FX-6300


GTX 460 or HD6870

Recommended Specs:

i5 4570 or FX 8350


GTX 660 or HD 7870

Xbox One or 360 Controller

The requirements also mention that an internet connection is necessary for activation at the first start, as well as (obviously) for online play.


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EK Releases ASUS ROG Strix X470-F Monoblock

April 24, 2018 — by ThinkComputers.org0


EK Water Blocks, the premium liquid cooling manufacturer, is proving its market leadership once again by releasing its first X470 series monoblock that is tailor-made for the ASUS ROG STRIX X470-F GAMING motherboard. The EK-FB ASUS Strix X470 RGB Monoblock has an integrated 4-pin RGB LED strip which makes it compatible with ASUS Aura Sync, thus offering a full lighting customization experience. This is a complete all-in-one (CPU and motherboard) liquid cooling solution for the new AMD X470 Chipset AM4 socket based ASUS ROG STRIX X470-F GAMING motherboard that supports the second generation of AMD Ryzen and 7th Generation A-series/Athlon processors.

Designed and engineered in cooperation with ASUS , this monoblock uses award-winning EK-Supremacy EVO cooling engine to ensure best possible CPU cooling. This water block directly cools AMD AM4 socket type CPU, as well as the power regulation (MOSFET) module. Liquid flows directly over all critical areas, providing the enthusiasts with a great solution for high and stable overclocks. Like with most EK monoblocks, the EK-FB ASUS Strix X470 features high flow design and it can be easily used with the system using a weaker water pump or lower pump speed settings as well.

This is the world’s very first monoblock for X470 chipset based motherboards. The specially designed cold plate ensures that the monoblock has better mechanical contact with the IHS of AMD AM4 socket based processors, thus enabling better thermal transfer.

The base of the monoblock is made of nickel-plated electrolytic copper while the top is made of quality acrylic glass material. The nickel plated brass screw-in standoffs are pre-installed and allow for easy installation.

The monoblock is equipped with a 4-pin RGB LED strip that connects to the motherboard’s 4-pin LED header or it can be connected to any other 4-pin LED controller. The LED strip cover can easily be removed for adjusting the cable orientation or replacing the LED strip with a custom solution as well.

Availability and pricing
The EK-FB ASUS Strix X470 RGB Monoblock is made in Slovenia, Europe and is readily available for pre-order through EK Webshop and Partner Reseller Network. All pre-orders will start shipping Tuesday, 8th of May, 2018. MSRP: 139.90€.

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Team Group Announces ASUS TUF Gaming Co-branded T-Force DDR4 Memory

April 24, 2018 — by ThinkComputers.org0


TEAMGROUP, the world’s leading memory brand, today officially announces the launch of the TUF Gaming Alliance certified T-FORCE VULCAN TUF Gaming Alliance memory, which is strictly tested by motherboard leader ASUS. After the cooperative launch with ASUS ROG, T-FORCE DARK ROG has created a trend around the world. Now once again, with creativity and ingenuity, TEAMGROUP design team adds TUF’s unique military camouflage pattern on the heat spreader. T-FORCE VULCAN TUF Gaming Alliance memory is definitely gamer’s best comrade on the battlefield of gaming or pursuit of extreme overclocking.

T-FORCE VULCAN TUF Gaming Alliance has passed strict burn in test held by ASUS. With clock frequency of up to 3600MHz, it offers consumers an experience of high-speed performance and a hardware with unique style. The memory is both distinctive and eye catching. With complete coverage design, the area of the high efficiency forged heat spreader is extended to the top and the two sides to provide memory a complete coverage of protection and enhance the radiating performance, so the system is able to maintain a longtime stable operation. The appearance is designed with unique military camouflage pattern. T-FORCE VULCAN TUF Gaming Alliance’s exclusive asymmetrical cutting is most suitable for gamers who love military style design.

T-FORCE VULCAN TUF Gaming Alliance series supports Intel XMP 2.0. It is only one click away to experience the high-speed sensation of overclocking. It is not only energy saving but the low working voltage can also reduce the temperature and the heat generated to offer the high speed running memory a stable, longtime operation and to show a barrier-breaking performance.

With strong research and development capability, TEAMGROUP has acquired the certifications of TUF Gaming Alliance and ROG Certified respectively. T-FORCE gaming memory is strictly tested by ASUS. With Asus motherboard, users can have the entire top gaming hardware at once to fully enjoy an extreme gaming and entertainment experience.

For more information, visit the product page.

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Samsung Announces the 970 PRO and 970 EVO Series M.2 NVMe SSDs

April 24, 2018 — by ThinkComputers.org0


Samsung Electronics, today introduced the Samsung 970 PRO and EVO, the third generation of its industry-leading consumer solid state drive (SSD) lineup. Having led the market with the first consumer-focused NVMe SSD in 2015, Samsung continues to push the performance barriers with this latest generation of SSDs that are built for tech enthusiasts and professionals so that they can enjoy higher bandwidth for intensive workloads on PCs and workstations.

“Samsung has led the NVMe SSD industry since its inception, and the company continues to define the latest standards of consumer storage with unprecedented performance of the 970 PRO and EVO SSDs,” said Un-Soo Kim, senior vice president of Brand Product Marketing, Memory Business at Samsung Electronics. “The 970 series sets a new bar in all aspects for the NVMe SSD market with groundbreaking performance, superior reliability and best-in-class capacity.”

The Samsung 970 PRO and EVO are designed based on the M.2 form factor standard and with the latest PCIe Gen 3×4 lane interface. The 970 series maximizes the potential of NVMe bandwidth, delivering unparalleled performance for processing large volumes of data, including 3D, 4K graphics work, high-end games and data analytics.

The 970 PRO enables sequential read speed of up to 3,500 MB/s and sequential write speed of up to 2,700 MB/s, while the EVO features sequential read speed of up to 3,500 MB/s and sequential write speed of up to 2,500 MB/s. The sequential write speeds represent an enhancement of up to 30 percent over the previous generation, thanks to Samsung’s latest V-NAND technology and the newly designed Phoenix controller. The 970 EVO, in particular, utilizes the Intelligent TurboWrite technology, which uses a large buffer size of up to 78GB to enable faster write speeds.

In addition to the advancements in performance levels, the 970 PRO and EVO deliver exceptional endurance and reliability. Featuring a five-year warranty, or up to 1,200 terabytes written – 50 percent higher than those provided for the previous generation – the 970 PRO and EVO are built to last. The Dynamic Thermal Guard technology safeguards against overheating by automatically monitoring and maintaining optimal operating temperatures, while a heat spreader and new nickel-coated controller further lower the SSD temperatures.

The 970 PRO and EVO also provide greater system design flexibility for the high-performance computing systems. Offering a variety of high capacity options in a compact M.2 form factor – including the single-sided 2TB EVO model – the 970 series enables convenient storage expansion across a wide range of computing devices.

The 970 EVO will be offered in 250GB, 500GB, 1TB and 2TB8 capacities, and the 970 PRO in 512GB and 1TB capacities. The 970 PRO and EVO will be available for purchase worldwide starting May 7, 2018, with manufacturer’s suggested retail prices starting at $329.99 and $119.99 USD, respectively. For more information, including warranty details, please visit

caseCasesComputer CasePC CasePM02PrimeraReviewReviewsSilverStoneTempered Glass

SilverStone Primera PM02 Case Review

April 24, 2018 — by ThinkComputers.org0


If you have been involved in any real aspect of the PC building community for any amount of time in the last 10 years or so, then you are probably familiar with SilverStone. SilverStone offers a range of products for both DIY builders and end-users alike, spanning from things like power supplies and CPU coolers to drive enclosures and PC cases. Today we will be taking a look at one of SilverStone’s latest PC cases from their Primera series, the PM02. We got to take a quick look at the PM02 at CES 2018 and now that we have the case in our hands, its time to dive in a little deeper.

Special thanks to SilverStone for providing the PM02 review sample!



As is pretty standard, the PM02 comes to us from SilverStone in a large cardboard box. The exterior of the box features a few images of the case inside, and the interior protection consists of open-cell foam to keep the case secure. Since this case comes with a tempered glass side panel, it is quite important to have good interior protections for the case, which SilverStone seems to have provided, as the panel arrived in one piece.


The included accessories for the PM02 are quite basic, consisting of a standard user manual and a small bag of screws and standoffs. Since the PM02 features many tool-less features, there are no included screws for things like 2.5″ and 3.5″ drives, which can hopefully help to keep the cost of the case down. There are also no zip-ties included, but we found this not to be a major issue once we were working inside the case, which we will cover in more detail later on.


Hack Your Nintendo Switch and ALL NVIDIA Tegra X1 Processors

April 24, 2018 — by hardocp.com0


Hack Your Nintendo Switch and ALL NVIDIA Tegra X1 Processors

I am not going to proclaim that there are a lot of things to do with your hacked Nintendo Switch, as I have never touched one, but I think the bigger story is that it is being proclaimed that all NVIDIA Tegra X1 processors are hackable with a wire jumper. Before you go throwing your hands up and running around waiting for the sky to fall, this is one of those things that requires physical access to the device. Cool to see. I guess this means someone might steal all your Pokemons? Thanks @Monkey34.

News Image

It’s not just limited to the Nintendo Switch. Temkin has discovered that the exploit extends across Nvidia’s entire line of Tegra X1 processors. – Since this bug is in the Boot ROM, it cannot be patched without a hardware revision, meaning all Switch units in existence today are vulnerable, forever. – Will work on ANY Nintendo Switch console regardless of the currently installed firmware, and will be completely future proof.

You can use a simple piece of wire to bridge Pin 10 and Pin 7 on the console’s right Joy-Con connector. They’ve also linked to a 3D-printable accessory that can be created in tandem with a micro-USB connector. It’s only a few short steps, and acts as a “permanent” solution since the exploit needs to be executed at every boot.